Cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) is a global cereal crop in Southeast Asia. It serves as staple food, thus has a major contribution to the calorie intake. Furthermore, a number of antioxidant substances have been identified in rice including phenolic compounds and melatonin. The concentration and composition of these antioxidant compounds were studied on glutinous and nonglutinous grains for both pigmented and non-pigmented rice varieties. Additionally, several medium-amylose rice grains of three Indonesian varieties (IR64, umbul-umbul and pandan wangi) were also evaluated. Finding indicates that the composition of phenolic compounds are noticeably different between glutinous and nonglutinous rice grains. The level of both melatonin and total phenolics in non-glutinous rice was higher than its glutinous variety. Hence, higher amylose content exhibits relatively higher amount of antioxidant compounds